If you can add anything to my work or have any questions or comments, please e-mail me.
..or "the statue game"


Are llamas colour blind? Do they see in shades of grey? No-one seems to know! I don't. All I know is that they can differentiate between what humans see as colours.

March 2008

In the past three years I have done much work with Oscar and Dillon using the click 'n' reward method and the four plastic boxes shown below. The final goal was for the llama to nudge a particular one when given the relative cue..
Both boys learned first of all that nudging any box on verbal cue earned a click and grain. Easy! This was simple targeting.That took all of three minutes, literally.

Then I moved on with Oscar with the plan of getting him to select just the blue box, on cue. I started by first asking him to choose black from white, using two cardboard boxes. He readily selected the black box on cue, no matter where I put it on the table. He could obviously tell dark from pale! Then I moved onto selecting the blue box from the set of four coloured ones on the cue "Blue Box". Success! No matter where I put it on the table, he picked it out.( See video on right.)


My problems began ... and I finally abandoned the exercise ...when I tried to introduce a second colour with its own verbal and hand cue. At least, this was successful until I tried to mix them up. And then it was random success. I worked at this exercise off and on for dozens of hours, trying different methods, but in the end I had to give up. I should really have tried adding a "white" cue to the black/white exercise at the time., because when I returned to it, I found the same confusion.

Looking back, I dont think it was colour recognition that was the problem. The problem was probably the complexity of linking in the mind of the llama, the cue, both verbal and hand-signalled with the colour.



The story so far: As anyone reading this section over the past year or so will know, this is a story of failure, despite devoting many many hours to the exercise.





I have left on this page a couple of the videos I made during the exercise:







Dec 27th 2014

I have recently returned to working with Banksy, my (only) alpaca, on colour recognition. To recap:

I started by teaching him the Toys Away game, a game in which he picks up identically-shaped knitted balls and drops them into a box. The balls are the primary colours red, blue and yellow. Banksy is able to do this now with great accuracy, dropping them into the box rather than beside it! He was being click/rewarded for each delivery.

I then moved on to rewarding just the red deliveries and have been working at this for several sessions. Disappointingly at first, indeed, for many, many sessions, the selection was random. I was on the point of giving up. And then it all happened! Something clicked! ( besides my clicker, that is!)

AUGUST 2015.

I have tried this exercise with Banksy again and the results are encouraging.After a couple of random selections, he began picking out red consistently.The association between the colour and the reward was clearly evident,


Ireturned to an exercise that Oscar had done with me a few years back. It's the one with coloured baskets here on the left .I had hoped for far greater of accuracy this time, but was disappointed. It is interesting that he chooses the blue box when I give the verbal and hand cue with much greater accuracy than the yellow or red. I dont think I'll ever introduce the green: there would be utter confusion!!

Oscar picking out yellows

Are they seeing in colour...or shades of grey?

And does it really matter?